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Research Report " Quantum Dot's : Introduction and Literature "

Origin

Quantum dots were first discovered by Alexey Ekimov in 1981 in a glass matrix and then in colloidal solutions by Louis E. Brus in 1985.  The term "quantum dot" was coined by Mark Reed.


The idea of using quantum dot as a light source emerged in the 1990s. Early applications included imaging using QD infrared photodetectors, light emitting diodes and single-colour light emitting devices. Starting from early 2000, scientists started to realize the potential of developing quantum dot for light sources and displays.
What are Quantum Dots?

A Quantum Dot (QD) is a nano-crystal made up of semiconductor materials that is small enough to exhibit quantum mechanical properties. Its excitons are confined in all three spatial dimensions. 
  • The electronic properties of these materials are intermediate between those of bulk semiconductors and of discrete molecules. 
  •  Electronic characteristics of a quantum dot are closely related to its size and shape. 
  •  Since the size of a quantum dot may be set when it is made, its conductive properties may be carefully controlled. 
  •  Quantum dot assemblies consisting of many different sizes, such as gradient multi-layer nano-films, can be made to exhibit a range of desirable emission properties.
  •  A quantum dot has a discrete quantized energy spectrum. 
  •  The corresponding wave functions are spatially localized within the quantum dot, but extend over many periods of the crystal lattice. 
  •  A quantum dot contains a small finite number (of the order of 1-100) of conduction band electrons, valence band holes, or excitons, i.e., a finite number of elementary electric charges.
  • Small quantum dots, can be as small as 2 to 10 nano-meters, corresponding to 10 to 50 atoms in diameter and a total of 100 to 100,000 atoms within the dot volume. 
  • Self-assembled quantum dots are typically between 10 and 50 nm in size.

 Structure of Quantum Dot

Fig. Basic structure of Quantum Dot
  


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Shrey Kapoor is a Tech-Enthusiast, Harvard certified Cyber Security and Cyber Forensics Expert. He Founder Techphlie.com, which is one of the India's Top Tech News Website. Even Forbes and many other renowned publishers took his articles reference. Shrey is a Technology analyst, strategic thinker and creative writer who is passionate to deliver the best, latest possible Tech-News to his followers and subscribers. He completed his masters in Artificial Intelligence & Robotics, certified in IPR, T.Q.M. & ISO 9001:2008 In Quality Management Systems.

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